edward lammer, md
In Memoriam
An Overview
Birth Defects Study
Conotruncal Heart Defects
Orofacial Clefts
Neural Tube Defects
Retinoic Acid Embryopathy
Download Memorial Program



CHORI Staff Directory
CHORI Intranet



Hypospadias is a congenital malformation in which the urethral opening is on the ventral side of the penis, rather than at the tip. It is one of the most common congenital malformations, affecting about 4-6 males per 1000 male births. The severity ranges from a urethral meatus that is slightly off center to a meatus that is located in the perineal area. Some hypospadias cases can be attributed to known underlying genetic causes or syndromes (<10%), but for most, no cause is evident. The public health effect of hypospadias is significant, given that it usually involves surgical correction, and even after correction. Boys born with hypospadias may experience impaired sexual function and psychosocial difficulties related to sexuality and sexual activity later in life. Hypospadias tends to be more common among babies born to women who are non-Hispanic white, have a higher education, and are older and nulliparous, and babies with hypospadias are more likely to be small for gestational age.

Recent publications:
Carmichael SC, Shaw GM, Lammer EJ. Environmental and genetic contributors to hypospadias: a review of the epidemiologic evidence. Birth Defects Res 2012; 94:499-510.
Carmichael SL, Mohammed N, Ma C, Iovannisci DM, Choudry S, Baskin LS, Witte JS, Shaw GM, Lammer EJ. Diacylglycerol kinase Κ variants impact hypospadias in a California study population. J Urol 2012; 189(1):305-311.

Carmichael SL, Ma C, Choudhry S, Lammer EJ, Witte JS, Shaw GM. Hypospadias and genes related to genital tubercle and early urethral development. J Urol 2013; Nov; 190(5): 1884-1892.

Carmichael SL, Yang W, Roberts E, Kegley SE, Wolff C, Guo L, Lammer EJ, English P, Shaw GM. Hypospadias and maternal residential proximity to agricultural pesticide applications. Pediatrics 2013; Nov; 132(5): e1216-1226.

Carmichael SL, Witte JS, Ma C, Lammer EJ, Shaw GM. Hypospadias and variants of genes related to sex hormone biosynthesesis and metabolism. Andrology 2014; 2:130-137.

Revised: Thursday, September 1, 2016 3:58 PM


© 2005 Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute
5700 Martin Luther King Jr Way • Oakland, California 94609
Phone 510-450-7600 • Fax 510-450-7910
Site MapDisclaimer